Quotes about Amino Acid conjugation from the world's top natural health / natural living authors
|Donald R. Yance, j r.,C.N., M.H., A.H.G., with Arlene Valentine (See book keywords and concepts)|
The major Phase II conjugation reactions are glu-curonidation, glutathione amino acid conjugation, sulfation, acetylation, and methylation. Methylation is the pathway that processes and eliminates homocysteine. High levels of homocysteine are associated with many illnesses, including heart disease.
In addition, herbs that inhibit inflammatory pathways in turn possess fibrin-ogenic abilities (natural abilities to inhibit blood stickiness and clotting), leading to antiangiogenic activity.
Textbook of Natural Medicine 2nd Edition Volume 1Michael T. Murray, ND (See book keywords and concepts)
Phase II reactions typically take place through glucuronidation, amino acid conjugation, glutathione conjugation, acety-lation, and methylation.34 The phase II process, which depends strongly on adequacy of specific nutrients, must be capable of transforming all of the phase I-generated reactive molecules into excretable compounds. If this process is incomplete, toxic intermediates can build up.
Acetaminophen is a typical drug that undergoes conversion for excretion through these two pathways.
The main conjugation reactions are glucuronidation, amino acid conjugation, sulfation, glutathione conjugation, acetylation, and methylation.6 These conjugation reactions involve the addition of a molecule to the intermediate metabolite to further increase its hydrophilic qualities, allowing for final elimination in the urine or bile.7
In assessing the liver's detoxification ability, one is evaluating the functional capacity of this organ system. Measuring functional capacity and performance of an organ system is not new.
Patients suffering from hepatitis, alcoholic liver disorders, carcinomas, chronic arthritis, hypothyroidism, toxemia of pregnancy, and excessive chemical exposure are commonly found to have a poorly functioning amino acid conjugation system. For example, using the benzoate clearance test (a measure of the rate at which the body detoxifies benzoate by conjugating it with glycine to form hippuric acid, which is excreted by the kidneys), the rate of clearance in those with liver disease is 50% of that in healthy adults.
|The Life Extension Editorial Staff (See book keywords and concepts)|
Phase II reactions include sulfation and glucu-ronidation, which are key to human detoxification, along with glutathione conjugation, methylation, amino acid conjugation, and acetylation. Phase II detoxification typically involves biochemical conjugation, in which various enzymes in the liver attach small chemical moieties to the toxin. The conjugation reaction neutralizes toxins and reactive intermediates left over from Phase I detoxification. Both Phase I and Phase II detoxification require assistance from a healthy supply of enzymes. Enzyme quantity can be influenced by dietary components.
Besides glutathione conjugation, the other pathways are amino acid conjugation, methylation, sulfation, sulfoxidation, acetylation, and glucuronidation. These enzyme systems need nuttients and metabolic energy to function. As noted earlier, if liver cells do not function properly, Phase II detoxification slows down and increases the toxic load of toxic intermediates.
The thitd essential detoxifying role of the liver is synthesis and secretion of bile. The liver manufactures approximately a quart of bile every day. Bile serves as a canier to effectively eliminate toxic substances from the body.
|Committee on Comparative Toxicity of Naturally Occurring Carcinogens (See book keywords and concepts)|
Phase II enzymes include UDP-glucuronyl-transferase, UDP-glucosyltransferase, sulfotransferase, acetyl-transferase, methyltransferase, acyltransferases (which affect amino acid conjugation) and glutathione S-transferase (Dauterman 1994).
It is not surprising that the metabolic pathways involved in the biotransformation of both synthetic and naturally occurring chemicals are similar. It is possible that these pathways developed in response to naturally occurring chemicals and offered some selective advantage to organisms capable of detoxifying xenobiotics.
|Henry Pasternak, D.V.M., C.V.A. (See book keywords and concepts)|
Humans and animals suffering from hepatitis, liver disorders, carcinomas, chronic arthritis, hypothyroidism, and excessive chemical exposure are commonly found to have a poorly functioning amino acid conjugation system (Phase II). This means that in those with liver disease, all the toxins requiring this pathway stay in the body doing damage almost twice as long.17
N, N-Dimethylglycine is a tertiary amino acid and is a natural component of animal and plant metabolism.
|Michael T. Murray, N.D., Joseph E. Pizzorno, N.D. (See book keywords and concepts)|
There are essentially six Phase II detoxification pathways: glutathione conjugation, amino acid conjugation, meth-ylation, sulfation, sulfoxidation, acetylation, and glucuronidation. Table 1 provides examples of toxins neutralized by each of these pathways. Some toxins are neutralized through several pathways.
In order to work, these enzyme systems need nutrients, both for their activation and to provide the small molecules they add to the toxins. In addition, they need metabolic energy to function and to synthesize some of the small conjugating molecules.
People who suffer from hepatitis, alcoholic liver disorders, carcinomas, chronic arthritis, hypothyroidism, toxemia of pregnancy, and excessive chemical exposure are commonly found to have a poorly functioning amino acid conjugation system.
For example, using the benzoate clearance test (a measure of the rate at which the body detoxifies benzoate by conjugating it with glycine to form hippuric acid, which is excreted by the kidneys), the rate of clearance in those with liver disease is half that of healthy adults.
To ensure that amino acid conjugation is working well, simply make sure that you are eating adequate amounts of protein-rich foods.
Methylation involves conjugating methyl groups to toxins. Most of the methyl groups used for detoxification come from S-adeno-sylmethionine (SAM). SAM is synthesized from the amino acid methionine. This synthesis requires the nutrients choline, vitamin B12, and folic acid.
SAM is able to inactivate estrogens (through methylation), supporting the use of methionine in treating conditions of estrogen excess, such as PMS.
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