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Choose a standardized extract containing 16 percent triterpenes and take 200 milligrams two to three times daily for one month. ¦ Milk thistle contains silymarin, which acts to correct the abnormal cell replication involved in psoriasis. It also contains several anti-inflammatory compounds and enhances the liver's ability to filter toxins from the blood. Choose an extract standardized to contain 80 percent flavonoids (silymarin) and take 200 to 300 milligrams three times a day. If you develop loose stools, increase the amount of fiber in your diet or take a natural fiber supplement.

The Healing Power of Herbs: The Enlightened Person's Guide to the Wonders of Medicinal Plants

Michael T. Murray, N.D. (See book keywords and concepts)

Other compounds found in viscum include a wide range of carbohydrates including simple sugars as well as polysaccharides;5 phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, caffeic acid, syringin, and eleuthero-sides;610 sterols including beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and triterpenes; various amino acids as well as vasoactive amines including tyramine, phenylethylamine, and histamine; and fatty acids such as linoleic, palmitic, and oleic acids.2 The alkaloids isolated from viscum appear to be related to those found in the host plant.

Dosage The dosage of a lipophilic extract of Pygeum africanum standardized to contain 14 percent triterpenes including beta-sitosterol and 0.5 percent n-docosanol is 100 to 200 milligrams per day in divided doses. The crude herb is not used. Toxicity Acute and chronic toxicity tests in the rat and mouse have shown that the standardized extract of Pygeum africanum bark is nontoxic. Increasing the dosage from 1 to 6 grams per kilogram in the mouse and from 1 to 8 grams per kilogram in the rat caused no deaths within 48 hours.

The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants

Andrew Chevallier (See book keywords and concepts)

Constituents Pygeum contains phytosterols (beta-sitosterol), triterpenes (ursolic and oleanolic acids), long-chain alcohols (n-tetracosanol), and tannins. History & Folklore Pygeum has been valued in Africa for its hard wood, often used to make wagons, and for its bark, which is taken to treat urinary disorders. Medicinal Actions & Uses In conventional medicine in France, the fat-soluble extract of pygeum bark has become the primary treatment for an enlarged prostate gland.

The Healing Power of Herbs: The Enlightened Person's Guide to the Wonders of Medicinal Plants

Michael T. Murray, N.D. (See book keywords and concepts)

Virtually all of the pharmacological research has featured a pygeum extract standardized to contain 14 percent triterpenes including beta-sitosterol and 0.5 percent n-docosanol. This extract has been extensively studied in both experimental animal studies and clinical trials with humans. The primary target organ for pygeum's effects in males is the prostate. The three major active components of pygeum appear to exert different, yet H3C o Figure 29.3 Beta-sitosterone complementary, effects in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

Textbook of Natural Medicine 2nd Edition Volume 2

Michael T. Murray, ND (See book keywords and concepts)

Virtually all of the research on pygeum has featured a pygeum extract standardized to contain 14% triterpenes including beta-sitosterol and 0.5% n-docosanol. This extract has been extensively studied in both experimental animal studies and clinical trials in humans (see Ch. 107). Numerous clinical trials in over 600 patients have demonstrated pygeum extract to be effective in reducing the symptoms and clinical signs of BPH, especially in early cases.

The Healing Power of Herbs: The Enlightened Person's Guide to the Wonders of Medicinal Plants

Michael T. Murray, N.D. (See book keywords and concepts)

The concentration of triterpenes in centella can vary between 1.1 and 8 percent, with most samples yielding a concentration between 2.2 and 3.4 percent.5 Figure 15.1 diagrams the major triterpenoid components of Centella asiatica—asiatic acid, madecassic acid, asiaticoside, and madecassoside. The Madagascar variety is most commonly used to produce standardized extracts and yields triterpene concentrations of asiatic acid (29 to 30 percent), madecassic acid (29 to 30 percent), asiaticoside (40 percent), and madecassoside (1 to 2 percent).

The Herbal Drugstore

Linda B. White, M.D. (See book keywords and concepts)

Black Cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) This herb seems to reduce the fluctuation of estrogen and its influence on the breast. Black cohosh is also credited with regulating hormones. Typical dosage: 500 milligrams of product standardized to 0.2 percent triterpenes, one to three times per day. Caution-. Do not take while pregnant. Saw Palmetto (Serenoa repens) This herb has a significant anti-inflammatory effect that helps reduce inflammation of the breast. It also can help regulate estrogen influence on the breast.

The Way of Herbs

Michael Tierra (See book keywords and concepts)

CatVclaw Uncaria tomentosa Common Name: Una de gato Family: Rubiaceae Parts Used: Edible inner bark of the vine Energy and Flavors: Cool, bitter Systems Affected: Liver Biochemical Constituents: Oxindole-alkaloids, N-oxide, rhyncophyl-line, N-oxide, carboline alkaloid, hirustine N-oxide triterpenes, polyphenols, phytosterols (stigmasterol and campsterol). Some studies have isolated the alkaloid isoteropodine as the primary constituent, but much more needs to be learned about this important botanical.

Besides these, the plant also contains volatile oils, flavonoids, sterols, and triterpenes, as well as proteins, vitamins, and minerals. It is the phenylalkylamines (called cathines), that are responsible for the central nervous system stimulant activity. Properties: Stimulant and tonic, similar to the use of coca leaves in South America.

Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals: A Handbook for Practice on a Scientific Basis

Josef A. Brinckmann and Michael P. Lindenmaier (See book keywords and concepts)

H3C OH H0% CH3 Ml H /O (CH2)„-CH = CH-^ H k CH2 ]| CH2 H3C—(CH2)n^; H3C-H H3C CH3 H3C ~CH3 n = 7 : Nonanal n = n = 8 : Decanal n = 6 : trans-Decen-2-al 8 : trans-Dodecen-2-al (S)(+)- Linalool (R)( )- Indications: It is used as a stomachic, spasmolytic, and carminative, due to its essential oil content, which also has bactericidal and fungicidal activity. Also used for treatment of subacid gastritis, diarrhea, and dyspepsia of various origins. The admixing of coriander to preparations with anthraquinone-containing drugs (e.g.

Medical Herbalism: The Science Principles and Practices Of Herbal Medicine

David Hoffman, FNIMH, AHG (See book keywords and concepts)

Many saponins, especially triterpenes, are considered immunoadjuvants and are used as such in Japan, either in the form of the plant source or as the extracted chemical. Phenolics A number of phenolic molecules demonstrate immunological effects. The simple phenolic acids are ubiquitous among flowering plants, fruits, and vegetables. Ferulic acid, named after asafoetida (Ferula foetida), increases phagocytosis in mice. Anethol, found in aniseed oil (Pimpinella anisum), increases the leukocyte count in the blood; the widely found pseudotannin catechol stimulates granulocytes.

The ABC Clinical Guide to Herbs

Mark Blumenthal (See book keywords and concepts)

New polyhydroxylated triterpenes from Uncaria tomentosa. J Nat Prod 1990 May-Jun:53(3):559-64. Aquino R, DeSimone C, Pizza. Plant metabolites. Structure and in vitro antiviral activity of quinovic acid glycosides from Uncaria tomentosa and Guettarda platypo-da.f Nat Prod 1989;52(4):679-685. Beg AA, Baltimore D. An essential role for NF-kB in preventing TNFa-induced cell death. Science 1996;274:782-410. Cited in Sandoval M, Okuhama NN, Zhang X-J, Condezo LA, Lao J, Angeles FM, Bobrowski P, Miller MSJ.

Chemistry Flaxseed contains 30-45% fixed oil, including triglycerides of alpha-linolenic, linoleic, oleic, stearic, palmitic, and myristic acids; 20-25% proteins; 3-10% mucilage, composed of neutral and acidic polysaccharides which, after hydrolysis, yield 8-10% galactose, 9-12% arabinose, 13-29% rhamnose, 25-27% xylose and galacturonic and about 30% mannuronic acids, sterols, and triterpenes (campesterol, stigmasterol, and sitosterol); 0.1-1.

UG [Sandoval et al, 2002]), which is rich in flavonoids, quinovic glycosides, poly-hydroxylated triterpenes, and tannins. While earlier studies reported alkaloids as the active components of cat's claw (Aguilar etai., 2000; Laus etai, 1998; Stuppner etai, 1993; Kreutzkamp, 1984; Wagner et al, 1985a, 1985b), more recent studies report that bioactivity is spread over a wide range of components (Aguilar et al., 2002; Sandoval et al, 2002; Kitajima et al, 2000; Lee et al, 1999; Sheng et al, 1998; Wirth and Wagner, 1997; Aquino et al, 1991, 1989; Cerri et al.

Textbook of Natural Medicine 2nd Edition Volume 2

Michael T. Murray, ND (See book keywords and concepts)

Recent scientific investigation into Remifemin, an extract of black cohosh standardized to contain 1 mg of triterpenes calculated as 27-deoxyacteine per tablet which has been used in Germany for over 40 years, has shown that it is a safe and effective natural alternative to hormone replacement therapy in the treatment of menopause and may offer some benefits in PMS as well. In one study of 135 women, Remifemin was judged to have "performed very well" in PMS in that it reduced feelings of depression, anxiety, tension, and mood swings.

Prescription for Herbal Healing: An Easy-to-Use A-Z Reference to Hundreds of Common Disorders and Their Herbal Remedies

Phyllis A. Balch, CNC (See book keywords and concepts)

Other researchers have linked its antitumor properties to triterpenes and antioxidants isolated from the trunk bark. Laboratory studies indicate that espinheira santa may have a chemotherapeutic effect on some forms of lung cancer and that it slows growth of ovarian tumors. Laboratory testing has identified chemicals in the herb that have the ability to kill other types of cancer cells as well. • Gastritis. Espinheira santa regulates the production of hydrochloric acid by the stomach and helps to heal wounds. This explains why it is used in a traditional Brazilian antacid remedy for ulcers.

Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy: Modern Herbal Medicine

Simon Mills and Kerry Bone (See book keywords and concepts)

Polyphenols (predominantly gallotannins); phenolic acids, flavonoids, triterpenes.11 Interestingly, arbutin is found at high concentrations in some plants capable of surviving extreme and sustained dehydration.12 The German Pharmacopoeia (DAB 10) sets a lower limit of 6% for arbutin content. Bearberry samples containing less than 6% arbutin should be regarded as adulterated and probably contain other species of Arctostaphylos.

The Healing Power of Herbs: The Enlightened Person's Guide to the Wonders of Medicinal Plants

Michael T. Murray, N.D. (See book keywords and concepts)

For example, the penta-cyclic triterpenes exhibit antiinflammatory effects within the prostatic epithelium and may be responsible for stimulation of the secretory cells of the prostate, seminal vesicles, and bulbourethral glands.8-10 And finally, the fatty acids components are similar to those of saw palmetto and may exert similar effects as well as improve the oral bioavailability of other components of the lipophilic extract. Clinical applications The pharmacological actions of the standardized pygeum extract support its use in prostate disorders, BPH in particular.

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