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The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants

Andrew Chevallier (See book keywords and concepts)

Constituents Linseed contains 30-40% fixed oil (including 36-50% linolenic acid and 23-24% linoleic acid), 6% mucilage, 25% protein, and small amounts of linamarin (a cyanogenic glycoside). Linamarin has a sedative effect on the respiratory system. History & Folklore Linseed has been cultivated for at least 7.000 years in the Middle East, and has long been esteemed as a medicinal herb. Pliny (ad 23-79) summed up its many applications by asking, "What department is there to be found of active life in which linseed is not employed?

Cyanogenic glycoside (tetraphyllin) • Resin • Gums Key Actions • Tonic • Stimulant • Mild laxative & diuretic • Antidepressant Parts Used Leaves are harvested in summer. They make a pleasant tasting tea and are used for a wide range of medicinal preparations. & Key Preparations & Their Uses Tablets usually also contain other | herbs. Take as a relaxing tonic. Tincture (to make, p. 291) is a nerve tonic and antidepressant. For mild depression, take 30 drops with water 4 times a day. Infusion (to make, p. 290) is a tonic and is useful for urinary infections.

Constituents Lady's mantle contains tannins, a glycoside, and salicylic acid. History & Folklore Andres de Laguna's translation (1570) of Dioscorides' Materia Medica recommended two preparations of lady's mantle - the root, powdered and mixed with red wine, for internal and external wounds, and an infusion of the aerial parts, for "greenstick" fractures and broken bones in babies and young children. When taken regularly for 15 days, lady's mantle was said to reverse sterility due to "slipperiness" of the womb.

Constituents Fringe tree contains a saponin (chionanthin) and a glycoside (phyllirine). CINERARIA MARITIMA Cineraria maritima syn. Senecio cineraria ( Compositae) Silver Ragwort Description Evergreen shrub growing to 1 ft (30 cm). Has oblong toothed leaves covered in a silver-white felt and yellow composite flowers about A in (1 cm) across. Habitat & Cultivation Native to the West Indies, silver ragwort has become naturalized throughout the Mediterranean and occasionally grows in more northerly parts of Europe. It prefer cliffs and rocks, and is widely cultivated as a garden plant.

It contains a cucurbitacin glycoside with antitumor properties. Citrus aurantium (Rutaceae) Bitter Orange Description Evergreen tree growing to 30 ft (10 m). Has leathery dark green leaves, delicately perfumed white flowers, and orange fruit. Habitat & Cultivation Native to tropical Asia, this tree is now grown throughout the tropics and subtropics. Orchards of bitter orange are found along the Mediterranean coast, especially in Spam. Parts Used Fruit, peel, leaves, flowers, seeds, essential oil.

Constituents Black cherry contains prunasin (a cyanogenic glycoside that yields hydrocyanic acid), benzaldehyde, eudesmic acid, coumarins, and tannins. Prunasin reduces the cough reflex. History & Folklore Cherokee women traditionally took black cherry bark to ease labor pain. Other Native Americans used it in the treatment of coughs and colds, hemorrhoids, and diarrhea. European settlers learned of the bark's medicinal properties, and m the 19th century it became a widely used remedy.

The Natural Guide to Medicinal Plants and Herbs

Frantisek Stary (See book keywords and concepts)

The chief active principle of the drug, which consists of the dried stems cut at the beginning of flowering, is the glycoside verbenalin plus bitter principles, mucilage, tannins, and a small amount of a lemon-scented essential oil. In folk medicine it is justifiably recommended as a diuretic and an aid to digestion. It is also reputed to have a specifically constipating action. Current central European phytotherapy, however, is reserved in its use of the drug. It is far more popular in southern Europe where it is also recommended as a tonic remedy for exhaustion and depression.

They contain flavonoids and the glycoside aucubin with marked healing, or granulation properties. The other constituents, primarily tannins and perhaps also an essential oil, promote the action of aucubin. The drug is used in the form of an infusion as an eyebath and in compresses applied to the eyes to treat inflammation of the eyelids, inflammation of the conjunctiva, and styes. It is also good for treating general tiredness of the eyes and all accompanying effects. The infusion is prepared from one tablespoon of the crushed drug to half a litre of boiled water.

Excitotoxins: The Taste That Kills

Russell L. Blaylock, M.D. (See book keywords and concepts)

When the scientists analyzed the seed they found that it contained various glycoside compounds, the most important of which was cycasin, a known liver toxin.163 Cycasin was also found to induce cancer in rats. But multiple attempts to induce the ALS disorder in experimental animals failed. Later, another toxic compound was found in smaller concentrations. This compound, called |3-N-methylamino-L-alanine or L-BMAA for short, was found to cause seizures when fed to mice but was not shown to cause the muscle wasting seen in human cases.

The Natural Guide to Medicinal Plants and Herbs

Frantisek Stary (See book keywords and concepts)

The constituents include coumarin, with its characteristic aroma, which is obtained during the drying process from the glycoside melilotosid, aucubin-like aglycone and speruglin and ancillary substances. The drug has antispasmodic and sedative properties. In larger doses, however, the coumarin has a narcotic effect and so is potentially dangerous. The joining of two coumarin molecules gives rise to dicoumarol which effectively prevents blood clotting and thereby the formation of thrombi.

Heinerman's Encyclopedia of Healing Herbs and Spices

John Heinerman (See book keywords and concepts)

Soviet scientists attribute the restorative power of Siberian ginseng to the plant's glycoside content—naturally occurring chemicals which initiate the body's stress response. A minimum of 2 capsules daily with meals for several months is suggested to increase your own personal levels of physical endurance. Protects Against Stress-Induced Problems Siberian ginseng has achieved renown throughout Soviet bloc countries as an effective antidote to stress-related illnesses. In an interview I had with a Soviet physician during a visit to the USSR, I learned some fantastic things about this herb.

The Natural Guide to Medicinal Plants and Herbs

Frantisek Stary (See book keywords and concepts)

The leaves are used medicinally; they contain a large amount of mucilage, the glycoside aucubin, substances with an antibiotic effect, plus tannins and silicic acid. They must be gathered and dried with care because if crushed they turn brown and lose their potency. Ribwort is also cultivated on larger tracts where it is necessary to keep a careful check on the drug's quality, more so than when the leaves are gathered in the wild. Ribwort is one of the most popular medicinal herbs for home remedies.

Food Swings: Make the Life-Changing Connection Between the Foods You Eat and Your Emotional Health and Well-Being

Barnet Meltzer, M.D. (See book keywords and concepts)

Learn to Love Licorice Licorice contains glycyrrhizin, a glycoside. This active herbalite is similar in structure and activity to adrenal steroids. It works to keep blood sugar elevated. ţAvoid Alcohol Alcohol lowers blood sugar by interfering with the body's glucose-regulating mechanisms and causing an increase in the release of insulin by the pancreas. Alcohol-induced reactive hypoglycemia often triggers cravings for sweets, caffeine, or more alcohol. Thus begins the sugar cycle and its subsequent mood swings.

Herbs of Life: Health & Healing Using Western & Chinese Techniques

Lesley Tierra (See book keywords and concepts)

Indications: fevers, colds, flus, nervous conditions, insomnia, colic, teething Projects: tea, syrup, sun tea, sweating Licorice_ Glycyrrhiza glabra; Leguminosae Parts used: root Energy and taste: neutral; sweet Active constituents: glycyrrhizic acid (a triterpene glycoside), flavonoids, starch, sugar (glucose and sucrose), lignin, asparagine, a complex volatile oil and a trace of tannins. Substances in this herb seem to produce physiological reactions of desoxycorticosterone, with associated retention of sodium and water and the excretion of potassium.

For instance, Digitoxin was created from a cardiac glycoside found in foxglove, an herb known to regulate the heart (though it is dangerous). Likewise, salicylic acid in meadowsweet was extracted to form aspirin, having the same analgesic effectas the herb. (Salicylic acid is also found in willow bark and poplar bark and buds.) Thus, active ingredients were extracted out separately, concentrated and given alone to treat specific conditions.

Rosaceae Part used: bark Energy and taste: warm; acrid, astringent; slightly toxic Active constituents: prunasin (a cyanogenetic glycoside), p-coumaric acid, scopoletin, tannins, sugars Actions: spleen, lung Properties: antitussive, sedative, astringent, carminative Dose: infuse 1 ounce/pint cool water, drink 3 cups/ day; 2 "00" capsules 3 times/day; 10-15 drops tincture; 3-9 gm in formula Wild cherry bark has been used for centuries in cough syrups as an expectorant to alleviate irritable and persistent coughs and asthma and to calm the respiratory nerves.

Secrets of the Chinese Herbalists

Richard Lucas (See book keywords and concepts)

This contains a glycoside called arbutin and owes much of its marked diuretic action to this substance. During its excretion by the kidneys, arbutin exercises an antiseptic effect on the urinary mucous membrane. Uva-ursi is therefore considered to be of value in various conditions of the urinary tract such as cystitis, urethritis, and so on. Uva-ursi is also said to be a strengthener of the sphincter muscle, and as such is useful in conditions of "night rising" and incontinence.

The Scientific Validation of Herbal Medicine: How to Remedy and Prevent Disease with Herbs, Vitamins, Minerals and Other Nutrients

Daniel B. Mowrey, Ph.D. (See book keywords and concepts)

A heptahydroxyflavan glycoside." Arzneimittel-Forschungen, 5, 490-491, 1955 20. Arustamova, F.A. "Hypotensive effect of leonaurus cardiaca on animals in experimental chronic hypertension." Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Armyanski SSR, Biologicheski Nauki, 16(7), 47-52, 1963. 21. Erspamer, L.V. "Pharmacology of leonurus cardiaca and leonur-us marrubiastrum L." Archives Internationales Pharmacodynamic et de Therapie, 76, 132-152, 1948 22. Isaev, I., & Bojadzieva, M. "Obtaining galenic and neogalenic preparations and experiments for the isolation of an active substance from leonurus cardiaca.

These names underscore the two main strengths of the herb: a uterine tonic (due to the alkaloid content) and a cardiac tonic (due to the glycoside content). In addition, the herb is often used to check diarrhea (due to the tannin content). As a cardiac tonic, Motherwort has been shown to be hypotensive (20-22), sedative (23-25) and antispasmodic. It calms palpitations and normalizes heart function in general.

Laxative action of a new anthraquinone glycoside from rhubarb root." Planta Medica, 48(1), 34-37, 1983. 19. Cresseri, A., Peruto, A.I. & Longo, R. Archiv der Pharmazie., 293, 615, 1966. 20. Fairburn, J.W. "The cathartic action of anthraquinones." The Pharmacology of Plant Phenolics. Ed Academic Press, N.Y., 1959, 39-49. 21. Chen, C.H., Li, T.T., Su, H.L., Wang, C.I. "Chinese rhubarb. VII. Mechanism of antibiotic action of anthraquinone derivatives. Effect on the respiration of staphylococcus aureus." Sheng Wu Hua Hsueh Yu Shen Wu Wu Li-sueh, 3(4), 426-433, 1963 22. Su, H.L., Chen, C.H.

One existing piece of work demonstrated significant hypotensive activity in the glycoside constituents of Wood Betony (5). Another study discovered that Wood Betony is active against tuberculosis bacteria (6). Since we know there are active principles in the herb, it would seem to deserve more active research attention. See Also NERVOUS TENSION; NERVES & GLANDS SKULLCAP has a checkered history for pain relief. Some cultures strongly recommend it for the relief of headache and related pain, while other cultures overlook this application entirely.

The Natural Guide to Medicinal Plants and Herbs

Frantisek Stary (See book keywords and concepts)

The top parts of the plant serve almost exclusively as raw material for the isolation of the flavonoid glycoside rutin (1 to 5 percent) which is used for treating circulatory disorders, haemorrhoids, varicose veins, varicose ulcers, etc. Rutin is an effective ingredient of many proprietary medicines for treating the aforesaid problems.

The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants

Andrew Chevallier (See book keywords and concepts)

Constituents Curry patta contains a glycoside (koenigin), volatile oil, and tannins. History & Folklore Curry patta is a common flavoring in Indian food. Medicinal Actions & Uses Curry patta leaves increase digestive secretions and relieve nausea, indigestion, and vomiting. They also treat diarrhea and dysentery. The leaves arc considered a hair tonic in India and are thought to prevent graying. They may also be used as a poultice to help heal burns and wounds. Juice from the berries may be mixed with lime juice (Citrus aurantiifolia) and applied to soothe insect bites and stings.

The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs: A Guide to Understanding and Using Herbal Medicinals

Leslie Taylor, ND (See book keywords and concepts)

The flavonoids and proanthocyanidins in embauba recently were reported to inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in vitro.2 (ACE-inhibitors represent a class of pharmaceutical drugs used for hypertension which promote vasodilation and act as a diuretic.) The traditional use of embauba for high blood pressure might be explained if these chemicals can be demonstrated to inhibit ACE in humans and animals.

The Natural Pharmacy: Complete Home Reference to Natural Medicine

Schuyler W. Lininger, Jr. DC (See book keywords and concepts)

Active Constituents The glycoside arbutin is the active ingredient in uva ursi. Arbutin is present in fairly high amounts (up to 10%) in uva ursi. It has been shown to kill bacteria in the urine.' Arbutin undergoes a highly complex process in the body. It is split into a small sugar molecule and a hydroquinone in the intestines, then the liver hooks the hydroquinone to another molecule. This makes it water-soluble so it is easily carried via the blood to the kidney. There, if the urine is alkaline, the hydroquinone is released from its carrier.

The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Plants: Ethnopharmacology and Its Applications

Christian Ratsch (See book keywords and concepts)

Caffeine and cathecine are primarily present in the form of a caffeine-cathecine complex (especially in fresh nuts) that previously was wrongly thought to be a glycoside and named colanine (Seitz et al. 1992, 941). Effects Cola nuts have pronounced powers to stimulate, to wake up a person and keep him awake, as well as tonic effects, i.e., they generally invigorate a person and promote concentration. The effects of freshly chewed nuts are more pronounced, as the caffeine-cathecine complex they contain is broken down more rapidly.

Coumarin is biosynthesized by the hydroxylation of cinnamic acid or coumarin glycoside. Even plants that do not actually contain any coumarin often produce it when they wilt (giving off the smell of hay) or dry (e.g., Anthoxanthum odoratum, Galium odoratum, Sida acuta). Extracts from ripe and wonderfully fragrant vanilla beans are rich in coumarins. Vanilla has a pheromone-like effect on humans, inducing courtship behavior. (Illustration from Hernandez, Rerum medicarum Novae Hispaniae, Rome, 1651) Coumarins in Psychoactive Plants (from Gray and Waterman 1978; Rompp 1995*; Shoeb et al.

Constituents The aboveground parts of Fabiana imbricata contain an essential oil, resin (fabiana resin), a bitter principle, an alkaloid of rather simple structure known as fabianine, various sugars (d-manoheptulose, d-arabitinole, d-mannitol, d-galactose, d-xylose, primaverose), a glycoside (fabiana-glycotannoid), various alkanes, fatty acids, erythroglaucin, physcion, and acetovanillone (Hoffmann et al. 1992, 186*; Knapp et al. 1972; Roth et al. 1994, 347*).

Constituents The root drug contains quantities of tannins, fat, a resin called glucoresina, a glycoside called calliandreine, an essential oil, and minerals (Martinez 1994, 319f.*). The bark is said to contain harmane (per oral communication from Rob Montgomery). It is rumored that the bark also contains N,N-DMT. Felix Hasler and David Volanthen did not find any DMT in an analysis of Calliandra stem cortex material from southern Mexico. If DMT is in fact present in the stem cortex, it would have to be in amounts less than 0.1%. The root cortex has not yet been studied.

It also contains the glycoside arbutine, the flavonoids hyperoside and quercetin (cf. Artemisia absinthium, Fabiana imbricata, Humulus lupulus, Psidium guajava, Vaccinium uligi-nosum), resins, and traces of alkaloids (Roth et al. 1994, 452; Tattje and Bos 1981; Vonarburg 1995, 78). Effects The essential oil can induce states of inebriation and spasms, but also abortions. Ledol has potent inebriating and narcotic effects that definitely can assume an aggressive nature. The effects of the alcoholic extract are very similar to those of alcohol.

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